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Harvard OU Citation Guide: Multimedia

Material Type

Reference List Example

In Text Example

Facebook and Twitter 

Author of post/tweet (year of publication) Full post/tweet, date of post/tweet [Facebook/Twitter]. Available at URL (Accessed date).

Fry, S. (2013) Gosh! Cannibalism discovered in flightless bird species (via @pandafeets), 21 December [Twitter]. Available at (Accessed 14 January 2013).

(Fry, 2013)


Title of Item (date uploaded) YouTube video, added by Name of uploader [Online]. Available at URL (Accessed date).

Google Privacy: A Look at Cookies (2008) YouTube video, added by googleprivacy [Online]. Available at (Accessed 12 June 2008).

(Google Privacy: A Look at Cookies, 2008)


Title of wiki (year last modified) Article Title [Online], date last modified. Available at URL (Accessed date).

Wikipedia (2012) Hawaiian Tropical Rainforests [Online], 19 November 2011. Available at (Accessed 16 January 2012).

(Wikipedia, 2011)

Podcasts, vidcasts, vodcasts

Author/presenter (year of publication) ‘Title of podcast’, Title of Internet Site [Podcast]. Date. Available at URL (Accessed date).

Townshend, P. (2011) ‘Can Peelism survive the internet?’, BBC 6 Music [Podcast]. 4 November. Available at (Accessed 11 September 2012).

(Townshend, 2011)


Title of episode’ (year of release) Title of Program, series number if available, episode number if available. Directed by Director’s Name. Written by Writer’s Name. Date of original broadcast if available [DVD]. Place of distribution, Distribution company.

‘The crackpots and these women’ (2002) The West Wing, series 1 episode 5. Directed by Anthony Drazan. Written by Aaron Sorkin. First broadcast 1999 [DVD]. Burbank, Warner Home Video.

(‘The crackpots and these women’, 2002)


Title of Film (year of release) Directed by Director Name [Film]. Place of distribution if available, Distribution company.

Lord of the Rings: The Two Towers (2003) Directed by Peter Jackson [Film]. New York, Newline Productions Inc. (Lord of the Rings: The Two Towers, 2003)

Television Program

Title of Program (year of broadcast) Channel, date of transmission.

The Apprentice (2008) BBC 1, 14 June.

(The Apprentice, 2008)

Radio Program

Title of program (year of transmission), Channel, date of transmission.

Today (2013) BBC Radio 4, 10 December.

(Today, 2013)


Interviewee, A. (year of interview) Unpublished interview conducted by Interviewer Name, date of interview.

Saunders, H. D. (1998) Unpublished interview conducted by Gordon Hall-Evans, 16 March.

(Saunders, 1998)


Sender, A. (year of email) Email to Recipient Name, date of message.


Knight, C. J. (2010) Email to Jebediah Parker-Knoll, 14 May.

(Knight, 2010)

Forum Messages

Author, A. (year of message) ‘Subject of message’, forum message to Name of the Forum, date posted.

Burrage, R. (2004) ‘Virus information’, forum message to OU Service News, 10 August.

(Burrage, 2004)

Skype meetings

Speaker, A. (year of call) Skype conversation with Recipient Name, date of meeting.

Coleman, O. (2012) Skype conversation with Roger Keane, 7 August. (Coleman, 2012)
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