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Harvard OU Citation Guide: In-Text Citations

Citation Examples

In-Text Citation Examples

Author's name in text Morgan (2014) refers to... 
Author's name in reference It is suggested that... (Solomon, 2012).
Two authors of a work

Researchers have stated...  (Dahl and Burns, 2013). 

Multiple authors of a work (3 and more)

(Smith et al., 2013) 

Multiple works by the same author/s

Dahl, McKenzie, and Burns (2012, 2014, 2015) clarify that... 

Multiple works by the same author/s, same year

(Peterson, 2014a, 2014b)

Two works cited (Jones, 2010; Yang, 2009)
Corporate authors (European Investment Bank, 2013)
Works with no author
When a work has no author, use up to the first 3 words of the work's title when citing it in-text. Do not include initial article if exists in the title.

(Commitment-Trust theory, 2010)

Online source or Source without a date
Do not include URL to the online sources.

with author (Newman, n.d.) 

with Corporate author (European Commission, n.d.)

no author (Banking, n.d.)

Citing specific page(s) of a work
Used in direct quotations.

(White, 2014, p. 152) - one page

(White, 2014, pp. 152-155) - multiple pages

Secondary or Indirect Referencing 
When you'd like to cite a work which is cited in a work you have.

(Payne, 2013 cited in White, 2014, p. 134)

Goldberg (1981) cited in McAvoy (2012, p. 21) described...

Indented/Block quotations (from one page)
Used when citing in-text larger blocks of text. This text should be indented.

Harrigan and Park (2014, p. 129) describe pasteurisation as: 

the name given to a moderate heating process that is intended to kill some types of microbe in a food but not endospores or some other particularly resistant type. Pasteurization may be applied to reduce the risk from pathogens in, for example, milk.

Indented/Block quotations (from multiple pages)

Harrigan and Park (2014, pp. 129-130) describe pasteurisation as: 

the name given to a moderate heating process that is intended to kill some types of microbe in a food but not endospores or some other particularly resistant type. Pasteurization may be applied to reduce the risk from pathogens in, for example, milk.

Indented/Block quotations with 3 dots (elipsis)
use three spaced dots to indicate that material was omitted within a sentence 

Harrigan and Park (2014, p. 129) describe pasteurisation as: 

the name given to a moderate heating process that is intended to kill some types of microbe... or some other particularly resistant type. Pasteurization may be applied to reduce the risk from pathogens in, for example, milk.

Indented/Block quotations with 4 dots (elipsis)
use four spaced dots to indicate that material was omitted between sentences

Harrigan and Park (2014, p. 129) describe pasteurisation as: 

the name given to a moderate heating process that is intended to kill some types of microbe in a food but not endospores.... Pasteurization may be applied to reduce the risk from pathogens in, for example, milk.

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